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 Post subject: Sakhalin Island
Post Number:#1  PostPosted: 13 Jul 2009 02:16 
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Sakhalin Island

The Sakhalin Oblast coat of arms and Flag


Sakhalin Island on the world map



Sakhalin Flag

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 Post subject: Re: Sakhalin Island
Post Number:#2  PostPosted: 15 Jul 2009 06:13 
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Sakhalin Island

A little bit of History.


Accompanied by random winter scene photos.


Sakhalin was inhabited in the Neolithic Stone Age.

Flint implements, like those found in Siberia, have been found at Dui and Kusunai in great numbers, as well as polished stone hatchets, like European examples, primitive pottery with decorations like those of the Olonets, and stone weights for nets.

Afterwards a population to whom bronze was known left traces in earthen walls and kitchen-middens on the Aniva Bay.



Among the indigenous people of Sakhalin are the Ainu on the southern half, the Oroks in the central region, and the Nivkhs on the northern part. Chinese chronicled the Xianbei and Hezhe tribes, who had a way of life based on fishing.



The Mongol Empire did some efforts to subjugate the Guwei (Sakhalin) people from 1280s. By 1308, all inhabitants of Sakhalin had surrendered to the Mongols. They paid tributes to the Great Khans until the end of their regime in China (1368).

The Chinese in the Ming dynasty knew the island as Kuyi, and later as Kuye. There is some evidence that the Ming eunuch admiral Yishiha reached Sakhalin in 1413 during one of his expeditions to the lower Amur, and granted Ming titles to a local chieftain.If that was the case, the island would at least nominally be included under the administration of the Nurgal Command Post, which was set up by Yishiha near today's village of Tyr on the Russian mainland in 1411, and operated until the mid-1430s.



A Japanese settlement in the southern end of Sakhalin of Ootomari was established in 1679 in a colonialization attempt.
Cartographers of the Matsumae clan created a map of the island and called it "Kita-Ezo" (Northern Ezo, Ezo is the old name of Hokkaidō).

The 1689 Nerchinsk Treaty between Russia and China, which defined the Stanovoy Mountains as the border, made no explicit mention of the island. Nevertheless Russia started occupying the island, with an army made up of convicts from the 18th century onwards.




The Qing Empire also claimed sovereignty over the island.However, as the Chinese governments did not have a military presence on the island, people from both Japan and Russia attempted to colonise the island, albeit from different ends.


Sakhalin became known to Europeans from the travels of Ivan Moskvitin and Martin Gerritz de Vries in the 17th century, and still better from those of Jean-François de La Pérouse (1787) and Ivan Krusenstern (1805). Both, however, regarded it as a peninsula, and were unaware of the existence of the Mamiya Strait or Strait of Tartary, which was discovered in 1809 by Mamiya Rinzo.









Japan unilaterally proclaimed sovereignty over the whole island in 1845.

However, the Russian navigator Gennady Nevelskoy in 1849 definitively recorded the existence and navigability of this strait and — in defiance of Qing claim — Russian settlers established coal mines, administration facilities, schools, prisons, churches on the island.



In 1855, Russia and Japan signed the Treaty of Shimoda, which declared that both nationals could inhabit the island: Russians in the north, and Japanese in the south, without a clear boundary between. Russia also agreed to dismantle its military base at Ootomari.

Following the Opium War, Russia forced the Qing to sign the Treaty of Aigun and Convention of Peking, under which China lost all territories north of Heilongjiang (Amur) and east of Ussuri, including Sakhalin, to Russia. A Czarist penal colony was established in 1857, but the southern part of the island was held by the Japanese until the 1875 Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1875), when they ceded it to Russia in exchange for the Kuril islands.



After the Russo-Japanese War, Russia and Japan signed the Treaty of Portsmouth of 1905, which resulted in the southern part of the island below 50° N passing to Japan; the Russians retained the other three-fifths of the area. South Sakhalin was administrated by Japan as Karafuto-chō with the capital Toyohara, now known as Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk.



In the Soviet era the Island was a closed area under strict military control.After the end of World War II, the Japanese portion of Sakhalin island was occupied by Soviet troops. Ownership of the city transferred back to Russia and it was renamed Yuzhno-Sakhalin, meaning Southern Sakhalin City in Russian.

Even today due to restrictions, the entire Sakhalin Oblast and its internal and territorial waters except for Yuzhno-Sakhalin are considered to be border zone which means that the freedom of movement for foreigners is dramatically restricted and any movement outside of Yuzhno-Sakhalin (the Capital of the Island) requires registration to the Federal Security Service (FSB) and the Border Guard.



Since 1946, the Sakhalin Region, in its present form, was officially defined and integrated as a part of Russia. The Japanese who had been living there before mostly repatriated to Japan, but at least one-third of Koreans (originally brought to Sakhalin by the Japanese during the Second World War to work in the mines) were refused repatriation; stuck on the island, they and their descendants became known as the Sakhalin Koreans.

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 Post subject: Re: Sakhalin Island
Post Number:#3  PostPosted: 15 Jul 2009 06:14 
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Fishing and Ice Fishing


Fishing is still an important part of the economy, and ice fishing is a very popular sport
(with the added advantage that it also provides for the table).


Fishing boats beached for the winter.






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 Post subject: Re: Sakhalin Island
Post Number:#4  PostPosted: 15 Jul 2009 06:15 
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Yuzhno-Sakhalin



The Yuzhno-Sakhalin Coat of Arms

The city began as a small Russian settlement called Vladimirovka, founded by convicts in 1882.
Vladimirovka was renamed to Toyohara , and was the capital of Japanese Karafuto.


The old centre of Vladimirovka / Toyohara / Yuzhno-Sakhalin


As it is today


Lenin Square the new centre of town


Japanese D51 locomotive outside Yuzhno-Sakhalin Railway Station


The old Japanese administrative building is one of the few Japanese structures
still left on the island but now is a museum.



Displays of local fauna


Sakhalin Centre



Final notes on Yuzhno-Sakhalin.

Both the Russian and the Ex-pats that live on Sakhalin shorten the name of the town from Yuzhno-Sakhalin to Yuzhno.
Yuzhno means South / Southern (in Russian) and it causes quite a bit of confusion when talking to Russians not from Sakhalin.

"Southern?" "Southern where?"

Because of the large amount of foreign (ex-pat) workers that are working in the Sakhalin Oil fields there are certain bars in Yuzhno that you are more likely to hear a foreign language (English, Dutch, French, Italian, Japanese etc.) rather than Russian.


The home of the Kona bar is the unofficial head quarters of the ex-pat community.


The other unofficial headquarters is the Mishka Bar (in the Rubin Hotel).

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 Post subject: Re: Sakhalin Island
Post Number:#5  PostPosted: 15 Jul 2009 09:03 
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Raffi

That is a very nice post and I enjoyed looking all the photos.
:bravo:

wiz

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 Post subject: Re: Sakhalin Island
Post Number:#6  PostPosted: 16 Jul 2009 16:04 
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Very nice pictures and I am missing my cold town also.

I never been there but I can see is a beautifull place.

I will enjoy looking to any more photos of the place.

Is that you by the train?

Congratulations. :bravo:

Hanna


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 Post subject: Re: Sakhalin Island
Post Number:#7  PostPosted: 17 Jul 2009 08:18 
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Wiz,
Hanna,
Thanks for the nice comments.

No it is not me by the train, it is a Russian colleague (assistant from the days when I was working here).

Агент нуль нуль трех с половиной cannot be photographed :lol: :lol: except when he escapes from Lubyanka.

Agent zero zero three and a half (AKA Rasboinik).

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 Post subject: Re: Sakhalin Island
Post Number:#8  PostPosted: 17 Jul 2009 10:53 
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Агент нуль нуль трех с половиной


Very nice photos and I enjoyed reading the history also.

Keep the good work.

Lucky


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 Post subject: Re: Sakhalin Island
Post Number:#9  PostPosted: 23 Jul 2009 17:01 
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Some more photographs from the Island at the End of the Universe


The War Memorial






The open Air Military Museum

SU-15

Tanks +APC




Gagarin Park
The Orthodox Cathedral Near Gagarin Park


Statue of Uri Gagarin at the entrance to the park named after him.


Photos of the park


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 Post subject: Re: Sakhalin Island
Post Number:#10  PostPosted: 23 Jul 2009 19:15 
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Excellent job Raffi.

Really enjoyed looking at the new photos........ I am sure soon you will have some more...
Nice photos of the Park!

RGDS
wiz

:bravo:

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