All times are UTC




Post new topic Reply to topic  [ 3 posts ] 
Author Message
 Post subject: UKRAINE _History, Information
Post Number:#1  PostPosted: 03 Mar 2014 02:21 
Offline
Admin
User avatar

Joined: 28 Oct 2008
Last Visit: 20 Jan 2018 19:28
Posts: 3597
Location: Surrey UK
Gender: Male
Status: Married
Her/His Country: Russia
RW_here_since: July 2008
Times_to_FSU: Too many to remember
Image

The Declaration of Ukrainian Independence of 30 June 1941 was announced by the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) under the leadership of Stepan Bandera, who declared an independent Ukrainian State in Lviv. The prime-minister was Yaroslav Stetsko, and the head of Council of Seniors was Kost Levitsky.

The OUN intended to take advantage of the retreat of Soviet forces from Ukraine. Some members thought that they had found a new powerful ally in Nazi Germany to aid them in their struggle against the Soviet Union.

Days after the Nazi invasion of Lviv, however, the leadership of the newly formed government was arrested and sent to concentration camps in Germany. Within two years of the declaration, the Nazis had imprisoned or killed 80% of OUN-B leadership.

Ukrainian Territory Between World Wars

After World War I, Ukraine was divided into three parts: most of Central and Eastern Ukraine became the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1921. The capital was Kharkiv.

The majority of current Western Ukraine became part of the Second Polish Republic. This included the city of Lviv, which at the time was the center of Ukrainian nationalist activity.

A small part of current far Western Ukraine, the Zakarpattia, became part of Czechoslovakia.

The Ukrainian Nationalist Movement in Western Ukraine

For various reasons, the Ukrainian nationalist movement was more active in Western Ukraine than in Central Ukraine in the inter-war period. At the end of World War I, veterans of the Sich Riflemen created the Ukrainian Military Organization in 1920 to promote the creation of an independent Ukrainian state. The leader was Yevhen Konovalets

The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists - the OUN

In 1929, the Ukrainian Military Organization became the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists. The first leader was Bohdan Kravciv. The stated goal of the OUN was the creation of an independent Ukrainian State.

In 1940, the OUN suffered a split into two groups - one group supported Andriy Melnyk (this group became known as the OUN-M, or "Melnykivtsi"), while the other group supported Stepan Bandera (this group became known as the OUN-B, or Banderivtsi). The OUN-B was considered the more radical of the two.

Prelude to the Declaration

The OUN realized that an opportunity was available to fulfill their mandate - the creation of a Ukrainian State.

On June 22, 1941, the Ukrainian National Committee (Ukrayinsky Natsionalny' Komitet; UNK) was created in Kraków, with Volodymyr Horbovy as a president. The UNK published an essay, "Memorial", which outlined the plans of the OUN to declare independence.

This essay was met with severe disapproval of the Nazi authorities, and the leaders of the UNK, Horbovy and Bandera, were told to rescind the document. They refused, and made their way to Lviv.

On June 26, 1941, Soviet forces fled from Lviv, and the Ukrainian Nachtigall Battalion entered the city. The leader of the battalion was Roman Shukhevych.

Preamble

In his memoirs Vasyl Kuk said:

“On Monday June 30, at 6 p.m. on the second floor of the Prosvita building in Lviv (Rynok square 10) there was a community meeting. Community members living in Lviv and its environs, clergy, leading members of OUN, and members of the Ukrainian underground were gathered. The hall was overflowing with delegates.

The meeting was called by the first assistant to the leader of the OUN Yaroslav Stetsko to honour the Ukrainian fighters who had laid down their lives fighting for Ukraine. In an intensive speech, he spoke about the political situation which Ukraine was in with the declaration of war, stating that once again this war will take place in Ukraine over these rich lands and that the Ukrainian people cannot stand idly by but must be active and participate.

Regarding Germany, he stated that a Union with Germany was only possible if Germany recognized Ukrainian independence and its government. Stetsko read out the Proclamation of Ukrainian independence.

Those present listened to the proclamation standing, unanimously endorsed it and sang the Ukrainian national anthem Shche ne vmerla Ukraina.

The Act of Proclamation of Ukrainian Statehood

  1. By the will of the Ukrainian people, the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists under the direction of Stepan Bandera proclaims the formation of the Ukrainian State for which have laid down their heads whole generations of the finest sons of Ukraine.

    The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, which under the direction and founder and leader Yevhen Konovalets has undertaken in the past ten years a bloody battle with the Moscovite-Bolshevik enslavers in an energetic battle for freedom, calls all the Ukrainian people not to place down its weapons until all Ukrainian lands are united to form a Sovereign Ukrainian Government.

    The Sovereign Ukrainian Government will guarantee Ukrainian people order, unilateral development of all its energies and all its needs.

  2. In the western lands of Ukraine a Ukrainian Government is formed, which is subordinate to the Ukrainian National Government that will be formed in the capital of Ukraine – Kiev.

  3. The newly formed Ukrainian state will work closely with the National-Socialist Greater Germany, under the leadership of its leader Adolf Hitler which is forming a new order in Europe and the world and is helping the Ukrainian People to free itself from Moscovite occupation.

    The Ukrainian People's Revolutionary Army which has been formed on the Ukrainian lands, will continue to fight with the Allied German Army against Moscovite occupation for a sovereign and united State and a new order in the whole world.

    Long live the Ukrainian Sovereign United Ukraine! Long live the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists! Long live the leader of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian people.

    STEPAN BANDERA........................GLORY TO UKRAINE!

_________________
.
Image


 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: UKRAINE _History, Information
Post Number:#2  PostPosted: 03 Mar 2014 12:15 
Offline
Admin
User avatar

Joined: 28 Oct 2008
Last Visit: 20 Jan 2018 19:28
Posts: 3597
Location: Surrey UK
Gender: Male
Status: Married
Her/His Country: Russia
RW_here_since: July 2008
Times_to_FSU: Too many to remember
Government

After the proclamation of the Ukrainian independence a government was announced. This government included politicians from various parties, as well as political ideologies. They were:

  • Prime Minister Yaroslav Stetsko (OUN)
  • Deputy Prime Minister Markian Panchyshyn (no political affiliation)
  • Deputy Prime Minister Lev Rebet (OUN)
  • Minister of Interior Volodymyr Lysy (Socialist Radical Party)
  • Deputy Minister of Interior Konstantyn Pankivsky (Socialist Radical Party)
  • Minister of External Affairs Volodymyr Stakhiv (OUN)
  • Deputy Minister of External Affairs Oleksandr Maritchak (Ukrainian National-Democratic Party)
  • Minister of Defense Vsevolod Petriv (Social Revolutionary Party)
  • Deputy Minister of Defense Roman Shukhevych (OUN)
  • Deputy Minister of Defense Oleksandr Hasyn (OUN)
  • Minister of State Security Mykola Lebed (OUN)
  • Minister of Justice Yulian Fedusevych (no political affiliation)
  • Deputy Minister of Justice Bohdan Dzerovych (no political affiliation)
  • Secretary of the Ministry of National Economy Dmytro Yatsiv (OUN)
  • Secretary of the Ministry of National Economy Roman Ilnytsky (OUN)
  • Minister of Agriculture Yevhen Khraplyvy (Ukrainian National-Democratic Party)
  • Deputy Minister of Agriculture Andriy Piasetsky (Front of National Unity)
  • Minister of Health Markian Panchyshyn (no political affiliation)
  • Deputy Minister of Health Roman Osinchuk
  • Secretary of the Ministry of Health Oleksandr Barvinsky (no political affiliation)
  • Minister of Education Volodymyr Radzykevych (no political affiliation)
  • Minister of Communication N. Moroz (no political affiliation)
  • Minister of Information Oleksandr Hai-Holovko (no political affiliation)
  • Secretary of the Ministry of Information Osyp Pozychaniuk (OUN)
  • Secretary of the Ministry of Information Yaroslav Starukh (OUN)
  • Minister of Political Coordination Ivan Klymiv-Lehenda (OUN)
  • Director of Government Administration Mykhailo Rosliak (Socialist Radical Party)

A Council of Seniors headed by Kost Levytsky as president was also formed.

Reactions to the proclamation

Reaction in Ukraine

The act of proclamation was broadcast by Yaroslav Stetsko over the radio in Lviv, which made many believe it was supported by the advancing German troops. The act received immediate support from several Ukrainian church officials such as Metropolitan Archbishop Andrey Sheptytsky of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, Metropolitan Bishop Polikarp Sikorsky of the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church and Bishop Hryhoriy Khomyshyn Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church.

Apparently convinced that the group of Stetsko had the backing of the Germans Metropolitan wrote a pastoral letter in which he exhorted the people to support the newly proclaimed government "the scarifies which the final attainment of our goals require demand above all dutiful obedience to the just orders of the government which do not conflict with God’s law." Moreover he declared:

We greet the victorious German Army as deliver from enemy. We render our obedient homage to the government which has been erected. We recognize Mr.Yaroslav Stetsko as Head of State Administration of Ukraine.

The pastoral letter was read over the radio by chaplain of Nachtigall Battalion Father Hryn’okh the same morning. It appeared to have removed any doubts which may have been lingering in the mind of most prominent Ukrainians in Lviv concerning the origin of the Stets’ko government.

Supporters of Ukrainian independence have been divided in their assessment of the proclamation. Some considered it brilliant, others considered it reckless or even foolish.

Reaction by the German Government

The Declaration of Independence took the German authorities completely by surprise, and they saw it as an attempted coup. When Nazi troops entered Lviv, the German authorities told the leadership of the Ukrainian government to disband. However, it did not, and in reprisal the leaders of the government were arrested and interned in the Sachsenhausen concentration camp. These included President Yaroslav Stetsko, and Stepan Bandera.

By December 1942, Hitler personally recommended "most brutal means" even against "women and children" against supporters of the OUN

Post-war reaction to the Declaration

Some Ukrainian groups downplayed the early cooperation between the Ukrainian nationalist parties and the Nazis. They emphasized how Ukrainian nationalists fought both the Germans and the Soviets, and how the Ukrainian nation suffered enormously at the hands of both.


Information from Wikipedia

_________________
.
Image


 Profile  
 
 Post subject: Re: UKRAINE _History, Information
Post Number:#3  PostPosted: 03 Mar 2014 15:41 
Offline
Admin
User avatar

Joined: 28 Oct 2008
Last Visit: 20 Jan 2018 19:28
Posts: 3597
Location: Surrey UK
Gender: Male
Status: Married
Her/His Country: Russia
RW_here_since: July 2008
Times_to_FSU: Too many to remember
Image
Image

Born 1 January 1909, Kalush County, Galicia, Died 15 October 1959, Munich

More than any other nationalist leader, Stepan Bandera has come to symbolize the Ukrainian struggle for independence in the 20th century. Bandera was born into a clerical family and became active in the nationalist movement from a very early age. In 1927, as a student at Lviv Polytechnic Institute, he joined the Ukrainian Military Organization, and in 1929, became a member of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists.

Bandera rose quickly through the ranks of OUN, and in 1931 became chief of propaganda in the national executive. In June 1933 he became the head of OUN’s executive in Galicia. In Galicia Bandera oversaw OUN sabotage and assassination operations, directed against both the Poles and Soviets – in 1933 an official of the Soviet consulate in Lviv was assassinated on the order of Bandera.

Bandera also directed mass boycott campaigns against Polish monopolies of liquor and tobacco. Bandera was arrested in 1934 and tried in Warsaw for the assassination of the Polish Minister of Internal Affairs.

He was also tried in Lviv along with other members of the OUN executive. He was sentenced to death, which was commuted to life imprisonment.
Bandera was released after the fall of Poland in September 1939.

He and several other young leaders of OUN split with OUN leader Andriy Melnyk over what they saw as a lack of revolutionary radicalism in Melnyk’s leadership; many of the OUN cadres operating on Ukrainian territory sided with Bandera. Bandera was responsible for the formation of the Ukrainian National Committee, under which Ukrainian political forces were consolidated.

After the German invasion of the USSR, OUN-Bandera declared an independent Ukrainian state in Lviv on 30 June 1941. After Bandera refused to rescind this declaration, the Germans arrested him, and from July 1941 to September 1944 Bandera was interned in German prisons and concentration camps.

Bandera was elected to the OUN leadership in 1945 and elected head of OUN in 1947. Bandera continued to have contacts with and oversee the activities of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, under the command of Roman Shukhevych. In May 1953 he was elected head of OUN-abroad. He remained leader until 15 October 1959, Soviet agent Bohdan Stashynsky assassinated him in Munich. During Stashynsky’s trial, it was established that the order for Bandera’s assassination came directly from the head of the KGB Shelepin. Throughout his life Bandera consistently held to principles of integral nationalism and the establishment of a Ukrainian independent state through revolutionary violence.

Due to Soviet propaganda Bandera became an extremely controversial personality in Ukraine. The Soviet propaganda machine went to great lengths paint Bandera as a fascist and extreme nationalist who was a traitor to the Ukrainian people; the word “Banderovets” became a Soviet euphemism for a fascist and traitor. Despite this campaign of lies and disinformation, which, to some extent, is still being carried out by leftist forces in contemporary Ukraine, who continue to deny the crimes of the Soviet regime, Bandera has deservedly remained a symbol of the Ukrainian struggle against imperialism – Soviet, German and Polish – in the 20th century.

Information from The Ukrainian Canadian Research & Documentation Centre (UCRDC)

Image

Image

This photo appears to be a fake and work of the communistic propaganda,
according to this publication and much more info on the links below. SEE CAUSION NOTES

Bandera remains one of the most divisive and controversial figures in Ukrainian history. The Ukrainian nationalist was born in 1909 in a region of western Ukrainian that was then part of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire. He went on to lead the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists that fought for national independence - and against all perceived enemies of this goal, including Russians, Poles, Hungarians and Jews.

Bandera declared Ukraine an independent state on 30 June 1941, just nine days after Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union in World War II. On 6 July 1941 he was arrested and later imprisoned by Nazi Germany and released only in September 1944. A Soviet KGB agent assassinated him on 15 Oct. 1959 when Nikita Khrushchev was in charge.

The Associated Press wrote this about his political entanglements:

"Bandera did collaborate with the Nazis and received German funding for subversive acts in the USSR as German forces advanced across Poland and into the Soviet Union at the start of the war. He fell out with the Nazis in 1941, after the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists declared Ukraine's independence, and he was sent to a concentration camp.

Bandera won back Germany's support in 1944, and he was released. The German army was hoping the Ukrainian insurgents could stop the advance of the Soviet army, which had regained control over much of eastern Ukraine by then. Bandera set up a headquarters in Berlin and oversaw the training of Ukrainian insurgents by the German army."

Just before leaving office in 2010, President Viktor Yushchenko posthumously honoured Bandera as a Hero of Ukraine, an award rescinded by court order the next year.



CAUSION
This photo above appears to be a fake and work of the communistic propaganda,
according to this publication and much more info on the links below.


Image

Nazi scientists........... and also ..........Nazi Major General Reinhard Gehlen (middle) sits with colleagues.

READ MORE ABOUT THE UKRAINIAN RESISTANCE MOVEMENT HERE:

_________________
.
Image


 Profile  
 
Display posts from previous:  Sort by  
Post new topic Reply to topic  [ 3 posts ] 

All times are UTC


Who is online

Registered users: Bing [Bot]


You cannot post new topics in this forum
You cannot reply to topics in this forum
You cannot edit your posts in this forum
You cannot delete your posts in this forum
You cannot post attachments in this forum

Jump to:  
Powered by phpBB